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Year Locale Event Social Effects Source
1895 North Florida Citrus crops freeze Trees killed/industry to south OK Trager
1895 USA Wheat crops down World wheat prices respond Trager
1894-95 Korea 1st Sino-Japanese War Pits China against Japan over control of Korea Japan's more modern army defeats China - making Korea an independent state History
1892 Russia Famine US wheat flour shipped to stem deaths Trager
1892-94 China Famine due to lack of rainfall

>1 Million die

1892 Eastern Tropical Pacific/USA ENSO cool event Upper ocean low heat content SOI
1891 USA Economic depression begins Tight money/farmers move off land/east Trager
1891 Russia Crops fail/Famine Rural peasants raid towns for food Trager
1890 Indonesia warming 1C warmer 1890-1940 Ladurie
1890 Colaba, India warming 1C warmer 1890-1940 Ladurie
1890 No. America warming 1C warmer 1890-1940 Ladurie
1890 No. Africa warming 0.5-1C warmer 1890-1940 Ladurie
1890-1900 China warming trend begins Wetter, less freezing/dust/more river floods Feng et al.
1889-90 World-wide Influenza epidemic

Many Million die , 40% of populus affected

1889 Ceylon Coffee industry finished Rust from 1869-on destroys plants Trager
1889 Maine Lobster catch peaks 24 million pounds Trager
1889 Eastern USA Hudson shad fishery peaks Fishery begins a long-term decline Trager
1889 Eastern Tropical Pacific USA ENSO cool event Remarkably mild winter Ice shortages stimulate development of lce plants across Nation SOI/Trager #2
1888 Southwest USA Cattle industry fails 1884 Foreign investments divested Trager
1888 Northeastern US Mild winter/March Blizzard Atlantic storm/people&horses freeze in streets Trager
1888 Global ENSO Warm Event of 1877-78 and associated droughts likely to have beenamong the worst. Affected northern China, India, southern Africa, northeastern Brazil, Australia and the islands of the Pacific. Nine to 13 million estimated deaths in northern China and over 8 million in India. The excessive deaths could have been accentuated by the colonial masters of the time insisting on sending scarce food abroad to Europe. The failure of the Indian monsoon is suggested to have been the reason that Henry Banford (First Imperial Meteorological Reporter of the Government of India) was prompted to seek additional meteorological observations, including Australia. About half a million people also died in India during 1888 from drought and famine and it is estimated that maybe a third of Ethiopia's population died during the same year from drought and famine.
It was during the 1888 drought that Charles Todd, South Australian Director of Posts and Telegraph - with responsibilities for meteorology - commented how droughts over India and Australia tended to be coincident.
Wm Kininmonth

Also see the El Niño References at FSU/COAPS
1888 Pacific wide ENSO warm event Substantial records of climate anomalies SOI
see also Brian Fagan's "Floods, Famines, and Emperors" : "El Nino and the Fate of Civilizations"
1887 China Yellow River floods Crops fail/Famine kills 900,000 Trager
1887 USA Wheat crops peak Prices fall/Britain/others pay less Trager
1887 USA Great Plains Blizzards continue Cattle/farmers freeze; frictions begin Trager
1887-89 ENSO Warm Event Records/Proxies of El Niño Ý Quinn
1886 Canadian Prairie Wheat farming proved Angus MacKay plants Red Fife/success Trager
1886 US Great Plains Severe winter/Blizzards 60% cattle freeze/overgrazing devastates land Trager
1886 US Great Plains Intermit. drought begins Ends wet period Trager
1886 Eastern Tropical Pacific ENSO cool event Upper ocean low heat content SOI
1884-85 ENSO Warm Event Records/Proxies of El Niño Ý Quinn
1884 Kansas One of the worst floods in Kansas history >100 died Nash
1883 USA/Northern Plains Drought Diversified agriculture urged Trager
1883 Sunda Strait Krakatau erupts >36,000 die/atmospheric dust extreme Trager
1882 Southern Japan Crop Failures/famine Recruiters entice 100,000 peasants over next 30 years to Hawaii sugar fields Trager
1881-82 So.West USA Severe Drought Cattle raising remains profitable Trager
1881 Andalusia onset winter cooling 1881-1910 vs other regions Ladurie
1881 Wisconsin East central Lower Peninsula (Thumb area) of Michigan forest fire 169 fatalities and approximately 1 million acres burned U.WisconsinWebsite
1880-81 ENSO Warm Event Records/Proxies of El Niño European crops fail, Indian crops consumed by rats Quinn
1871-1879 GLOUCESTER 82 Cod Schooners/ Crews lost in Gales From 1830-1900 ~3,800 fishermen died from this one port, >2X total US casualties in War of 1812 Kurlansky
1879 China/India Drought/Famine continues India's rat population eats harvest Trager
1879 Britain/Europe Crops fail Wheat imported from USA to stem hunger Trager
1878 US Great Plains Extraordinary rainfalls Enhanced wheat production Trager
1878 Swedish coast Bohuslan herring bloom Begin 19 year abundance period Lindquist
1878 North Atlantic Cod Fisheries Collapse Periodic Collapse/Social Disaster
1878 Pacific wide ENSO warm event Substantial records of climate anomalies SOI
1877 So./central India Very Dry monsoon Strong negative rainfall anomalies/-SOI Kalidas/Sinha
1877-78 China Drought-Famine, continues Manchu hid extent of problem, slavery, cannibalism, diseases claim 9.5-13 million Nash
1876-77 India Famine continues 6 Million die Trager/Nash
1876-78 ENSO Warm Event Records/Proxies of El Niño Greatest recorded famine kills 10s of million Chinese Quinn/Trager #2
1876 China/No. India Drought/Famine 5 million die Trager
1875 Korea China's Qing Dynasty allows Japan to recognize Korea as an independent state Public split as to whether to remain with China or become closer to Japan History
1873 Bengal Famine Rice crops fail (drought?) Trager
1873-74 ENSO Warm Event Records/Proxies of El Niño Ý Quinn
1872 Plymouth, U.K. HMS Challenger Expedition Age of Exploration of Seas Begins
1872 Zanzibar Hurricane 150 vessels destroyed, and ~200 natives died Nash
1871 Michigan/Wisconsin Great Forest Fire of Chicago fire ignites>1 million acres forest

8 Oct 1871 The Great Chicago Fire - 250 fatalities; 17,450 structures burned;

Then ignited- Peshtigo (WI) fire - 1,182 fatalities >1.2 million acres of timberland destroyed;

Then Grows to include lower Michigan - 200 fatalities and 2.5 million acres burned.

1871 Arctic Early Winter Whaling Fleet lost/crews saved Trager
1871 ENSO Warm Event Records/Proxies of El Niño Ý Quinn
1870-1885 China warm, wet period Ý Feng et al.
1869 USA 1st daily weather bulletins Abbe Cleveland/1st Weather Bureau meteorol. Trager
1869-1883 Brooklyn, NY Crossing the East River between New York and Brooklyn during the severe winter of 1866-7 - ice and frustration caused the people to decide that they need dependable access for travellers ­ The Brooklyn Bridge... The summer of 1883 is memorable for the opening of the great bridge, uniting New York and Brooklyn into a metropolis of nearly two million people - a population that soon outgrew Paris, and then London . The bridge is practically a new street, belonging jointly to the two cities, a great thoroughfare fourteen miles long, continuously built up, from the Harlem River to East New York. A staggering tale of NewTechnology, Will, and Lost Lives. Harper's Monthly, 1883
1869 Germany Ecology "coined" Ernst Heinrich Haeckel/environmental balance Trager
1867 Arizona Territory Prehistoric canals cleared Irrigation system revitalized, Phoenix rises Trager
1867-69 ENSO Warm Event Records/Proxies of El Niño Ý Quinn
1867 Val d'Aosta Glacier retreat Spring Floods/glaciers Ladurie
1866 Prussia-Austria/America Great Cholera epidemic 230,000/50,000 die, respectively Trager
1866 India Famine due to lack of rainfall

>1.5 million die

1865 Austria Mendel's Law evolved Gregor Mendel/modern genetic theory
1865-66 ENSO Warm Event Records/Proxies of El Niño Quinn
1864 Pennsylvania Oil is discovered Oil fuel era begins in earnest Prager
1864 ENSO Warm Event Records/Proxies of El Niño First salmon canneries open on Columbia River/ San Francisco Quinn/Trager #2

1817-1863: or Home:

Exported from 1864-1895.wkz on 21/03/97 at 10:34:47 AM