Dark Blue arrows define start of major cooling periods;

Light Blue arrows signify optimal fishing eras.

Red arrows indicate periods of lowered resources, in general,

When great care should be taken - no Means or Equilibrium Theory, Please!

 

21st Century Fisheries - Crisis Management1A

Date

Location

Ocean Currents and Climate

PFEL Climate & Fisheries website

Event(s)

Likely Future - Japanese Sardine & Other Thermophyle pelagics & Major Cold-Epoch/Upwelling Species

Societal/Ecological Consequences

Fisheries Ecology Website

 RW Gauldie - Physiology and Fish Age

Cynics view of Fisheries Management - with Glossary

References:

Climate & Fisheries

Fisheries Oceanography

Fish as Food

Space-Based Oceanography

2001+/-

North Atlantic/North Pacific

and

Other Ocean Ecosystem Studies

The Continuous Plankton Recorder has been deployed for ~70 years.
Calibration factors are under development to convert CPR
catches to absolute abundances that can be integrated with other data sets where appropriate, which should increase the applicability and utility of CPR data.

The CPR database is one of the longest and most geographically extensive biological time series in the world, and scientists are currently focusing on gaining understanding about climate-induced ecological changes, there is increasing pressure to quantify the sampling performance and relate the CPR data to data collected by other plankton samplers.

Report of PICES/GLOBEC Continuous Plankton Recorder Advisory Panel

Continuous Plankton Recorder Publications and Data Sets

2001 Benguela Current, South Africa Largest Anchovy Biomass ever measured Fishery is able to nearly double its catch this year Maurice Shenker <mshenker@iafrica.com>
2001 Alaska Milestone - First Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for a Fisheries Management Plan was submitted for public comment, and revision, as required by National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in USA The SEIS for the diverse Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea-Aleutian Island groundfish fisheries describes in great detail the existing knowledge about the several groundfish species and complexes of greatest value to region. The many unknowns about these and over 200 other species involved were also identified. NOAA/NMFS/AFSC
August 2001 Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Gulf of Mexico Satellite-Popoff and archival tagging studies of Atlantic bluefin tuna by Stanford University researchers, led by Barbara Block, show regular crossing of ICCAT mid-Atlantic management boundary line at high rate from both directions. This suggests that the arbitrary Mid-line is not adequate for Atlantic bluefin management. The two long recognized bluefin spawing areas in the Gulf of Mexico (in March-June) and the Mediterranean (Sicily, Tunisia, and Black Sea in late summer) have helped support two separate stock hypotheses. Early dart tagging efforts by US sport fishermen, led by the late Frank Mather III, in the late 1960s to early 1980s, showed trans-Atlantic crossings, in only a few short months, but tag returns were suppressed by international commercial fishing interests.

 

Migratory Movements, Depth Preferences, and Thermal Biology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna by Barbara A. Block, and others, 17 AUGUST 2001 VOL 293 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org

2001

Eastern Pacific

to

Hawaii

Satellite-Popoff and archival tagging studies of Great White shark by Stanford University researchers, led by Barbara Block, show rapid crossing from coastal habitat where they feed on seals into the mid-Pacific and Hawaiian Islands.

For decades the Great White sharks off Central California have been tagged near seal haul-outs and tracked for a few days at a time, and often returned from Southern California Channel Islands, creating the illusion that these sharks are coastal, and not widely migratory.

In this recent study one large male took about 40 days to make the 2,280-mile trip to the Hawaiian island of Kahoolawe, just south of Maui, averaging 43 miles a day.

Now we know better.

B. Block, A. Boustany, P.Pyle, S. Anderson, B. LeBoeuf & S. Davis. 2001, Nature, January 3.
2001 Global

NGOs File Suit against regulatory agencies to stimulate management decision-making, and force stronger conservation efforts.

Unfortunately, many with sportsfishing interests pile on top of well-meaning conservation efforts, but too often - for all the wrong reasons.

There is a real dichotomy of opinions about whether or not recreational fishermen should be treated with the same bluntness and forced into the management regimes imposed on commercial fishermen.

In many regions and for many species, sports fishing is more of a threat than are commercial fishing activities. The Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean are the most well documented examples, of this situation.

FishNet facts about recreational vs commercial landings along east coast of USA
2001-2002 Global Markets

Commentary on Trade in valuable fish resources, such as Bluefin Tuna

Cultural specialties are spreading glocally, putting pressure onto already threatened resource bases.

Caviar Emptor!

2001 Report and scenarios:

Audubon's Spin about fisheries management: Quota Increase for Depleted Tuna Cloaked as Recovery Plan; U.S. Fails to Secure Needed Management Measures for Declining Swordfish

Theodore Bestor

The Mess in Gen Santos Mindanao update...


200BC to Present Kodiak Alaska, British Columbia and Columbia River systems The Fall 2001 Columbia River salmon run was the greatest ever recorded, since counts began in 1938. Sockeye salmon abundance studied from sediment records, declines around 100 B.C., for example, coincide with a warming period. Ecological Consequences of annual salmon spawning and growth in local river systems and lakes provide historical records of coming and going of salmon populations. B.Finney, I.Gregory-Eaves, M.S.V.Douglas
& J.P. Smol - Nature 16: 18April 2002 384k .pdf
2002 Norway UVAC = The Influence of UVR and Climate Conditions on Fish Stocks: A Case Study of NortheastArctic Cod - a research project starting this year. The main factors believed to influence survival of cod
eggs/larvae are ultraviolet radiation (UVR), temperature (thus influencing the "match" of cod larvae and their food) and the relative timing of the phytoplankton spring bloom, Calanus finmarchicus offspring and the cod larvae. Also included in this study are phytoplankton toxins and turbulence.
UVAC website
2002 Alaska

Pink salmon prices are at all time lows.

Landed values range from US$0.02-0.09 per pound.

"In 1949, when the price for salmon was calculated by the fish, pinks were bringing 37.5 cents per fish. At an average weight of 3 to 3.5 lbs that was better then 10 cents per pound." Little or no likeihood of fishermen breaking even in these circumstances - many have, (should have) stayed home.

Jim H Branson

Joe Macinko

2002 Alaska and otherwhere in USA Processor Quota - a new mechanism for creating "Company Store" cultures. "Senator Stevens has assured processors that he'll get PQ done through a last minute, behind closed doors appropriations rider. Riders are a vehicle politicians use to ram through their pet projects that they know would face stiff opposition and probably lose if there was a straight up vote. It's a
way for a minority (in some cases a minority of one) to usurp the authority of the majority."
Peter Baker, CCCHFA.Org
2002 Russia's Geophysical Cimate research community has been decades ahead of the western world of science in making monthly observations for the northern Hemisphere's Atmospheric Circulation and its implications - having initiated their ACI studies from the pole to about 20N - starting with Vangeneim,G.Ya. 1940. Long-term prediction of air temperature river debacle. National Hydrological Institute, 10:207 ­236 (in Russian).

This science was all championed later by Dzerdzeevskaya, B.L., and V.M. Kuganskaya, and Z.M. Vitvitskaya. 1946. (Translated title) Classification of Circulation Mechanisms Over the Northern hemisphere, and Features of Synoptic Seasons. Trudy - NIU GUGMS Ser 11, Issue 21.

Four known transitions occurred since observations began in 1889: - a cool epoch: 1912-24 began a warm epoch; 1942-54 - back to Cool; 1965-77, Warming and 1997-99 - back toward Cooling after ENSO Warm Event; The antilog peaks being centered between these dates - i.e 1904-06; 1940-42; 1969-70; 1988-91 - These latter correspond with peak periods for the world's 12 major production ocean fisheries.

The 13 Atmospheric Categories, comprising 30 or so special classes or patterns get attributed to these - then these are further combined into three ACI categories - as per the various generations starting with Vangengeim, in the 1930-40s.
The objective of
AA Girs and colleagues 1956 & 1971 reviews was to show that there were two epochs that were identified starting with the 1899 observations, and ending with 1966. Two Epochs ended - 1923, and then again in 1953, forming one complete cycle. Since 1954, up to 2002, the Arctic Institute has identified a repeat of that earlier cycle, which may have finalized in 1998 -i.e., the recent generic Global Regime Shift that everyone is now 'predicting' - and that various ocean processes and responses by various organisms and weather phenomena - told us occurred back in 1998 or so.

Klyashtorin L.B. 2001.

Climate change and long term fluctuations of commercial catches: the possibility of forecasting. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No 410 ,
98 p. FAO (Food Agriculture Organization) of the United Nations, Rome.

2002 NE and Mid-Atlantic US Trawl Fisheries

"Best Available Science" isn't anywhere near good enough" - as "Trawlgate" causes fishermen to lose respect for NOAA/NMFS surveys - and associated science that forms the basis for management.

"Serious errors" occurred from 2000 onward in the rigging of the bottom trawl used in the Spring and Winter Bottom Trawl Surveys. These surveys are conducted annually in the waters from North Carolina to Maine and are considered the primary - in instances the only - data sources for assessments of the condition of most of the important commercial and recreational fisheries in New England and the Mid-Atlantic.

According to NMFS, the rigging error - mismatched towing cables which would cause the net to not fish properly - occurred before the 2000 Winter Survey - and is only now being rectified.

Winter and Spring Bottom Trawl Surveys have been the "flagships" of the NMFS research effort in the Northeast. Extending back 40 or so years, they have been extolled as the "best available science" on the various fish populations sampled - they provide a long-term picture of how those populations fluctuate over time. These problems with gear in Northeast Science Center Bottom Trawl Survey raise many questions about groundfish and other stock assessments.

Maine Senator Olympia Snowe and Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy "have requested that the Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Commerce conduct a thorough examination of the manner in which NMFS maintains, inspects, operates, and verifies accuracy of equipment for collecting fishery data, including the timing and cost of these activities.

NMFS NE Fisheries Center News Release:

Letters from fishermen to NMFS regarding their experiences with surveys; under October 24 entry:

Reports re onboard and side-by-side fishing by New Jersey fisherman Jim Lovgren and Maine fisherman Bud Fernandes

Recognizing problems with the various surveys conducted by NMFS, the fishing industry has initiated side-by-side projects in which commercial fishing boats take samples in the same locations under the same conditions as the NMFS survey vessels, providing "ground truth" for the surveys. In each of the northeastern fisheries where this was done (surf clams, summer flounder, monkfish, sea scallops), the commercial boats caught significantly more per station than the NMFS vessel.

Side-by-side surveys should be required for all such survey activities.

2003 Pacific Ocean Francisco Chavez et al. Publish their overview account in SCIENCE 1/22 of the new Anchovy Epoch - a result of the recent shift from the Climatic Optimum for sardines, (and many other species) that has been the subject of many meetings, publications and studies since Tsuyoshi Kawasaki brought the Japanese sardine cycle information to everyone's attention in 1983 in Costa Rica.

Then 17 February in the Boston Globe we read that "'With few exceptions, we are going to lose most fisheries in the next decade if we don't mend our ways." Daniel Pauly is setting all fisheries back on course, by ignoring these facts in his teams' efforts to coordinate in collation of all available regional catch data, and melt them down into regional ecological games.

All this to prove that fishermen are bad guys...

Chavez et al. January 2003 Science
2003 Pacific Coast Japan Decadal changes in the diets of mychtophid fish over a period of 18 years (1964-1999). Mychtophids fed mainly on crustacean zooplankton in the years 1964-75, and 1991-99. Japanese sardine were the dominant foodstuff from 1976-90 - the period of the explosion of the Japanese sardine throughout the region. Estimation of the impact of predation on Japanese sardine larvae was made... Watanabe and Kawaguchi. estimated that ~479- to 1033 (with error estimates) tons of biomass of sardine larvae were or 24 to 52 (with error estimates) Billion individuals were eaten each night from January to March. These estimates were likely conservative because " sardine larvae, which have no exoskeleton, are more digestible and harder to identify in stomach contents tha are crustaceans." Watanabe, H. and K, Kawaguchi. 2003. Decadal change in the diets of the surface migratory mychtophid fish Myctophum nitidulum in the kuroshio region of the western North Pacific: Predation on sardine larvae by myctophids. Fisheries Science 69:716-721.
2003 Washington, Oregon, California Groundfish Fisheries brought to near halt, as MPAs and various ENGOs point to failure, near losses of three species Various options were considered, and due to bycatch issues, most of the shelf and shoal features were set aside for protection from various gear types.

OREGON'S Fishing History 

PCFMC/SWFC Announcement

NWR NMFS Announcement 

2003 Canada The Laurentian North population of Atlantic Cod, which extends from the northern Gulf of the St-Lawrence to Newfoundland s south coast, was assessed as threatened. Cod remain abundant in the eastern part of the region (southern coast of Newfoundland), but have declined substantially in the northern Gulf, where the fishery is now also closed - due to complete failure of recruitment - attributed to many causes, includng burgeoning seal populations.

Per Capita Trends in fish catch are slowly sinking, as human population growth slows - but -

How do we keep track of all the fisheries and catch, now that many local Asian fishermen are now allowed, even encouraged to go out onto the high seas for the first time in centuries - to seek new opportunities? Then there is the rapid increase in cultured fish - often dependent upon fish meal from other, non-local resources.

Numbers are changing, but not in the right directions..

COSEWIC
2003 Global

Pew Foundation sponsored Ransom Myers & Boris Worm "Nature" paper is a Media Hit - But - since they have obviously never read any of the historical literature on high seas fisheries, nor have any idea of it's historical evolution, their story will be rebutted.

While some of the North Atlantic fisheries they comment upon are indeed diminished, their explanations are not adequate - see graphic at top of page. Also, most of their over-generalized conclusions about high seas tunas and billfish fisheries are simply wrong!

Pew Oceans Commission publishes it's Report, and takes their messages to Congress - Independent Ocean Commission calls for immediate reforms - many links to problems are right on - BUT, too many important missing bits about who is responsible for what, particularly how US fisheries management is so much more successful than most, the Report does little to provide either insight or realistic accounts of the present state of US and other ocean or inland fisheries. The Report needed careful review by experienced fisheries scientists from US & international fisheries community.

 

Rebuttals abound - and continue to grow...

Senate Committee testimony by Richard Ruais

Maguire et al with Facts

Ben-Yami's perspective

News

Too Many People...

Alaska

NE Seafood Producers

2004 Vancouver BC The 4th World Fisheries Congress -

It was a mix of good and some really crappy presentations - mostly based on mythology of stablizing 'pristine pre-industrial equilibrium' in ocean ecosystems.

With the 'Usual' numbers of Out-of-Context Disquotations of Huxley's 1983 Inaugural Speech - as well  - 

At the end was a powerful statement by one of the panelists, Amanda Vincent, Identifying the

Real Problem -

Human Overpopulation.

Of course, for those who don't concern themselves with Dynamic Context - Life is easy, and linear - Even If Unreal.

If Earth's Ocean Ecosystems are one thing, it is that they are constantly changing.

The hard sell of ECOSIM with ECOPATH - was constant and totally misleading, as well.

I finally sat one of the brighter UBC Fisheries Centre folks down and explained the weakness of EwE. It is simple enough to understand once you get it together, and think about it.

A Usefull Analogy is any Bach Contata and FugueWhile the initial musical patterns are recognizable, the constant changes in themes, variations, - sometimes even rythms - creates a morasse for those insisting on 'eqilibrium' thus trying to project the next stages of any one of Bach's works - and Bach was 'organized' - if you will pardon the pun.

Now - with the options available to Bach's performers, literally hundreds of keys, levers that modify their outputs, and two arms, ten fingers, two feet in action - we get variations on a theme - never the same twice.

Typically, Pauly and Christensen's students & followers get one shot at
picking their favorite few recognizable keys (fish names with Catch Records, not even by size related abundances), using any combination of fingers and feet,
but only get to clamp them down on one chord - in the pretense that they have 'conquered the ecosystem's messages' - and somehow defined their state dynamics.

This is neither conducive to good music, nor pragmatic,
realistic descriptions of
ECOSYSTEMS within constantly changing
Environmental Contexts.

Dan Pauly's historical use of  'Words' are honestly reviewed here ...

2004 World Fisheries Over and over again, various NGOs and recreational fisheries interests have played their 'but fisheries are still declining' card in their efforts to manipulate managers and legislators into playing their games.

Many recent Washingtom Post articles provide typical examples - rarely factual, rarely rebutted

In the 1988 reference cited (at left) I reviewed the entire FAO fisheries catch data record, and found that there was a clear patterns wherein about 30-50 % of world fisheries were in growth or decline states at any one time

The sad part is that few or none of these media articles attempts to explain what systems ecologists and fisheries scientists have learned over the recent few decades about sequential, or Phase States and transitions within ever-changing climate-ocean physical systems, and the ecological consequences.

The best examples of such dynamic systems are those with the greatest species diversity - a direct consequence of these dynamics, leading to constant re-enforcement of species diversity at population and regional scales. Darwinian factoid.

Sharp, G.D.1988. Neritic systems and fisheries: their perturbations, natural and man induced. pp155-202 In: Ecosystems of the World: Part 27. Ecosystems of Continental Shelves (H. Postma and J.J. Zijlstra, eds.). Elseviers Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam-Oxford-NY,NY

August 2004

Agulhas Current -

South Africa

If you note the first entry on this page, 2001 anchovy biomass was largest ever - But...

This year's southern hemisphere's winter sardine run spikes excitement - and feeding frenzies

Sardines- also called pilchards, leave nutrient-rich feeding grounds for emptier, sub-tropical climes in response to the winter cold spike - attracting all sorts - sharks, dolphins, birds, and loonie divers - tourists

South African Fisheries References

Benguela Current SARP

Univ. of Cape Town, Report 2003

AUGUST 2004

USA - SCIENCE Magazine -26 August 2004 / Page 1- 10.1126/Science.

The Impact of United States Recreational Fisheries on Marine Fish Populations -
Felicia C. Coleman,* William F. Figueira, Jeffrey S. Ueland, Larry B. Crowder

August 27, 2004 FSU study reveals sport fishing takes a big bite of ocean catch

Once again, University folks re-discover the wheel - see reference at far right - as they compare catches by recreational fishermen to commercial catches for various fish populations under management effort control - Not news, particularly when you understand that many folks simply do not know how many recreational fishermen there are compared to commercial folks. In the early 1980s David K. Stevenson reported that the recreational fisheries catches in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean communities were often well above those of commercial landings - an absurd concept in too many people's minds. - Given the poor state of record keeping (particularly the reliance on random telephone surveys in the SE USA) in many regions of recreational fish catches, management has suffered.
Stevenson, D. K. 1981, A review of the marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic Fisheries Commission (WECAFC) region. FAO Fisheries Technical Papers - 211:132pp.

Translated in 1982. Una revisión de los recursos marinos de la región de la Comisión de Pesca para el Atlántico centro occidental (COPACO). FAO Doc. Tec. de Pesca 211:146 pp
2004 Eastern North Pacific

Changes in ocean zooplankton in the northeast Pacific associated with the possible climatic regime shift of 1998/99.

 

 

 

 

 

Consideration of ocean conditions in the management of salmon - new report by Bisbal and McConnaha suggests how the consideration of ocean conditions can be incorporated into salmon management, especially as it relates to the Council's mission in the Columbia River.

Amongst the many fundamental hypotheses that are under examination, the role of planktonic shifts associated with Climate Regime Shifts and consequent Upper Trophic Level Changes are likely to be highlighted as data sets and System Science evolves.

The Northwest Power Act of 1980 (Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act), authorized the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington to form the Northwest Power Planning Council and called for the Council to develop the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). The program addresses the restoration of fish and wildlife affected by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The recent amendment directed the Council to "consider the impact of ocean conditions on fish and wildlife populations" during implementation of its program. Consideration of ocean conditions has its most direct impact on anadromous fish populations, such as salmon and steelhead.

Batten, S.D. and D.W. Welch. 2004. Deep Sea Research II. 51:863-873.

 

 

Background document: CLIMATE-OCEAN CHANGES AND THE IMPACTS ON YOUNG SALMON IN THE STRAIT OF GEORGIA - by R. J. Beamish and C. Neville

 

 

Report 2004 by Gustavo A. Bisbal and Willis E. McConnaha

2005 Eastern North Pacific

Declines in salmon populations in the Northwest have occurred despite many decades of management attempts, and untold millions of dollars. Many of the management strategies focused on a single aspect of the problem, such as overfishing, habitat restoration, or water diversions.

Salmon are under threat in both the Pacific and Atlantic from pollution, poor river management, fish farming, over-fishing and climate change.

Hoopa, Karuk, Klamath, and Yurok Tribes are working together to have Klamath River Dams removed, and their fishery restored. These are the three largest tribes in California and
the largest in Oregon.

Recently a more comprehensive
"ecosystem based" approach has been initiated, one that considers a multitude of factors for salmon
enhancement. This paper describes some aspects of what may be considered the "backdrop" for salmon survival: climate and ocean conditions in the Northwest and the North Pacific. There is increasing evidence that salmon populations in the northeast Pacific are significantly influenced by long-term climate and ocean changes.

Multinational energy giant Scottish Power (NYSE - SPI) presently owns the dams, recently has announced plans to sell PacifiCorp to Warren Buffet owned Mid American Energy, based in Des Moines, IA. The Tribes will likely intervene in the regulatory proceedings governing the sale, as their livelihoods, culture, and the health of their children at stake, Tribal leaders are intent on restoring their fishery no matter who owns the dams.

George Taylor's 2005 Review of Northeast Pacific Salmon dependences upon Climate- Mediated Processes

Because of the major fish kill in the Klamath in 2002 (attributed to the U.S. Interior Department cutting off water flows, over the objections of fishery biologists, as well as fishing and tribal groups), the ocean salmon fishery offshore Oregon and California this year suffered massive restrictions because of concern for the remnant portions of the 2002 year class. The tribal and recreational fisheries on the Klamath are almost non-existent
this year. The dam removal the groups are working for, in addition to some corrections in U.S. water allocation in the Klamath Basin, will greatly help the effort to bring back what was the 3rd largest salmon producing river in the "lower 48" in the US - Zeke Grader - PCFFA

Washington State Department of Health offers a Fish Eater's Guide
2005 Norway EXPORTS of Norwegian seafood are on the increase. Record figures have occued for exports of Norwegian herring. The total figure to date is 1.5 BNOK, which is the highest ever. Exports of salmon/trout and whitefish are also showing a rise. Norway has exported seafood for 14.2 BNOK so far this year which is 11 percent more that in the first half of 2004. Figures from July 2005 show that exports of Norwegian seafood to France totalled 1.4 BNOK in the first half of 2005, the highest ever. The average prices have been more than 40 percent higher than during the same period in 2004. Final Draft Review, Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management Research Plan and Scenarios - West Pacific .pdf

Norwegian Seafood Export Council and Statistics Norway.
2006 Puget Sound
Washington State
Experts have been sounding alarms and pointing out the decay via pollution of Puget Sound for decades.

Politicians and agencies have promised repeatedly to get on with the tasks...
But!
Toxics in Puget Sound: Forum April 5th, 2006 -
Puget Sound is in trouble, but many still don't get it -
In order for Puget Sound not to become another 'desert' like Chesapeake bay -

The Proposed $12 billion cleanup plan needs public support...

New Alerts aired about eating Puget Sound Salmon

Washington State's Healthy Fish eating Guide online -
2006 Oregon &
Northern California
Lots of confusion over What and Why of the extensive changes in ocean species and lowered production patterns....

Extended rainfall in the winter season and massive run-off sets the scene for Systemic Chaos as the surface is sealed off from usual mixing by low salinity water... and of course, overpopulation.
Many Hypotheses - and Guesses

Then, there are the changes in Cloud-Cover

Historical Declines & Politics

Policy Options - Worth Reading

2006 GLOBAL Revisiting the continuous declarations by Pew funded researchers that the world of fisheries as we know it will cease to exist - by 2048 -

???

Another Classic Example of PR by folks who don't understand Fish or Fisheries - and Their Dynamics

Changes in the Biomass of Large Pelagic Predators -  
  Hampton, Sibert, Kleiber, Maunder and Harley (aka the Gang of Five) of the Myers and Worm (2003) paper on changes in the CPUE of some fishes was published in Nature - the Inconvenient Truth about today's editors in in both Nature and Science -
Maguire, J.-J., Sissenwine,M., Csirke, J., Grainger,R.; Garcia,S.
"The state of world highly migratory, straddling and other high seas fishery resources and associated species."

FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 495. Rome: FAO. 2006. 84p.
2007 Chesapeake Bay - and Beyond

Virginia Government initiates a System-Wide Study of the Region's Fisheries.

Atlantic Menhaden Conservation Act
Oct 16, 2007

James Kirkley, Head of the new research effort states: "The present administration of Virginia really wants to document what is happening--just how important are menhaden to communities and the underlying economics?"
"The industry, the administration, our state marine resources commissions, and many stakeholders have already been as collaborative as is possible.  It is now up to me to make this study comprehensive and as sound as feasible."
"A major aspect of our study is to educate the public about what is known scientifically and what is myth." - "Menhaden is a local highly sensitive issue, especially among rec. anglers, ENGOS, and the industry.  Everytime there is a large kill of menhaden floating near the beach, the industry is criticized - sometimes, it may be true; other times, it may be lack of oxygen and simply a large kill."
As per decades of immersion in fisheries Development/Management issues, Menakhem Ben-Yami states the fact that:   "Management steps should be based, apart from statistics, on ecological study of what makes each particular fish stock tick. Responses of all stages of the stock (from eggs and larvae to spawners) to changing environmental factors, hydrological (temperature, salinity, oxygen, sea currents)and biological (food and predators), pollution, essential habitat status, etc.), should be studied and, as far as possible, understood, to create a scientific basis for intelligent management decisions. Not everything can be quantified - never mind, as long as we see relative differences, and nothing bad would happen if fishery science stops pretending that it can tell in precise figures how many fish there are in the sea and, consequently, how many fish can be "safely" taken out."
James Kirkley concludes:
"Fishing, like most businesses, need to be cognizant of technical and economic efficiency.  Without improvements in efficiency, operations become less profitable, and economic problems for individuals dependent upon fishing increase. "
and
"We are then left with the basic questions of (1) how can we maintain efficiency, (2) compete in the market, (3) have a consistent high-quality supply of seafood; (4) and maintain a domestic industry and related communities?"

"This study originated between the Governor of Virginia, the Sec. of Natural Resources, the VMRC, and the industry.  There is an MOU between the various parties to conduct this study."

"The emphasis of this study is on the social and economic value of menhaden, which includes direct use and non-consumptive use."

The Study's WIKI-Site
2007 Global Oceans “Very soon, Vatican City will officially become the world’s first “carbon- neutral” sovereign state. On behalf of the Holy See, an eco-restoration company based in San Francisco, Planktos/KlimaFa, will begin creating a “climate forest”…

Planktos? 
This the same for-profit company that is going to be (or has already been?) indiscriminately strewing hundreds of tons of “iron dust” in the Pacific Ocean on the high seas just west of the Galapagos EEZ?


2007 US East Coast and Gulf of Mexico - EEZ

Department of redundancy Department

Executive Order: Protection of Striped Bass and Red Drum Fish Populations
Removes fishing rights to any but 'sporties'...
and
potentially, management of All Aquatic Resources from States to the Whitehouse???

1) No more commercial fishing of these species ever again in federal waters unless the Order is rescinded, something done extremely rarely and which can only be done by another President.
2) Anglers right now still can NOT fish for these fish in federal waters.
President Bush said Saturday: "I hope the state officials take a serious look at (this) gamefish designation. It is an effective tool to protect endangered or dwindling species. It prohibits commercial sales, which remove the incentive to catch the fish for anything other than recreational purposes."
Response by the Editor of the National Fisherman


2008 Oregon
&
California
Sacramento river Chinook (or King) Salmon fisheries are closed for the year -
The entire coastal fishery from the Mexican Border to Oregon's northen border were closed to fishing, recreational and commercial.
Despite the limited fishing for the last few years, and the concerns over poor 'returns' to once large spawning regions - this year the declines were beyond comprehension - Many possible causes have been posed, ranging from 'poor ocean conditions'
e.g. Bill Peterson, a NOAA Fisheries marine scientist based in Newport, Oregon who tracks conditions in the Northwest - "Since 2003, the [ocean] food chain that supports the salmon has not been very productive" 
Robert Lackey - EPA's Center Pole for NW salmon managment has posted the Salmon 2100 Project guidlines and objectives

1943-2008 Northeast Pacific

Rockfishes of the NE Pacific

This Year - At Last

2008 Publication in English by Klyashtorin & Lyubushin

See Right Column for Orders

The many goundfish species along the eastern Pacific, from the upper Gulf of California, out into the Pacific, northward along the coast and onward into the Gulf of Alaska provide many insights into local micro-climatic processes, and related species life histories.

Meanwhile, the major forage species, sardines, anchovies and other small pelagics respond more directly to decadal scale climate regime shifts, ENSO-related perturbations - etc.
Stimulating the changes in the behaviors of larger predator species.

The multi-decadal effort to ID the several hundred fish species that occupy the Northeastern Pacific began with the CalCOFI Program - initially homed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (via Carl Hubbs) - and an International Fish Identification Project centered at the La Jolla Fisheries lab -
Initially led by Elbert Ahlstrom, and carried forward by Geoffrey Moser - in collaboration with California Fish and Game staff - particularly CF&G Monterey Bay Lab's Robert Lea -

In 2002 Milton S. Love, Mary Yoklavich and Lyman Thorsteinson published 
The Rockfishes of the Northeast Pacific
The English translation of the 2005 publication  (in Russian)
"Cyclic Climate Changes and Fish Productivity" by
Leonid Klyashtorin & Alexey Lyubushin - is now available -
from VNIRO Publishing. (230 pages, 160 figures, 2 color insets Price: US$59 (hard cover - including mailing.

You Can Order It:
   Via Mail: Russia, Moscow, 117997, Profsoyuznaya st.  90, ”Science-Export”.
Via  Fax:  7(495) 334-7140; 7(495)-334-7479
Via Email: naukaexport@naukaran.ru

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1958-2007

William E Evans

Evans Autobiography

Marine Mammologist -

and Much Much More!

Evans' Autobiography covers a life-long look into the world's ocean environment, and logging behaviors, and messages of marine mammals, as well as his flocks of birds, etc. 

"A combination history of some aspects of Marine Mammal Science 
and
a narrative of a special voyage by the author into the world of marine mammals..."



A Great Friend,
father of two now
successful men -
and loving husband to
his wonderful wife -
Phyllis -

Who has also
had a role in wriiting
some of their shared
moments -
Phyllis Evans Seals cover


Published by Pensoft -
along with his early studies with            his  Russian analog -
Alexey Yablakov -
Alexey Yablakov -  WE Evans cover





Date Location Tagging of Pelagic Predators -
TOPP - an international effort to study the behaviors of major ocean species within their changing environments - Census of Marine Life CoML promoted and funded is one of the most successful ever! Now, these data are shared with both NASA and NOAA - a BIG contribution to environmental science.

Another Success Story
 Waterborne chemicals causing male fish to produce female organs -

 Mercury in Fish: What's Too Much?

However, Needless Fish Warnings Not Good 'Science,' Not 'In The Public Interest'

Mercury Facts and Calculator
Climate & Fisheries References

FISH Timelines

Britannica on SEAFOOD

Return to 20th Century to 1850s - Fisheries Science Era

Or Early Fisheries Cultural Development

Or Home