25ka BP - 2300 BC


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Year Locale Event Social Effects Source
2200-2250BC Aegean Region Drought and Cooling returns -Population moves from Anatolia Cycladic Isles/Greek Mainland colonized AMNH
2297 China Yellow River floods Drowned tens of thousands immediately... Nash
2300BC Indus Valley Rice cultivated Irrigations/flood cycles Trager
2333BC Korea Korea's earliest civilization Choson founded by Tan-Gun History
2,350-2,150BC Mesopotamia 1st Legal codes/Ur burials Akkadian Nation State/Cuneiform writing AMNH
2475BC Central America Maize domesticated Potatoes grown in So. America Trager
2500 BC Indus River valley Mohenjo-Daro/Harappa River based agriculture/civilizations thrive Trager
~2700BC Mississippi Watershed Flood Proxy Records/major decadal scale episodes "spawned by the export of extremely moist gulf air to midcontinental North America that was driven by natural same-time-scale oscillations in Gulf of Mexico ocean currents." Brown, Kennett, and Ingram
2800 BC Sumeria Great Flood 11 ft silt layer, mass deaths, 1st epic story Trager
2900-2350BC Mesopotamia Babylon under Hammurabi the Great conquers Sumeria, Era City States/Ur burials Major military campaigns/Temples/Palaces AMNH
3000BC Mediterranean 1st City of Troy Early Bronze Age/Aegean region/Copper to west AMNH
3000 BC Egypt 1st calender system Nile flood cycle=Solar year, 2 million people Trager
3000BC Sudan & Rio Cuarto Argentina

Sudan's the Meidob volcanoes erupted about 3000BC and 3050BC -    and it has been hypothesized that a large asteroid hit near Rio Cuarto in central
Argentina about that same time..

Volcanic ash could have been
dispersed into both hemispheres.
Re asteroid events
~3000-3050BC Volcanic eru Thermal Max ends Climatic Optimum ends Ladurie
3200-3000BC Near east 200 year drought returns Late URUK Society, colonies of dry-farmers Collapses

Weiss & Bradley

Science 291 (26 Jan 2001)

3000BC World Population=100 million Ý Trager
4000-3000BC Europe Climate Optimal Holm oak spreads northward Ladurie
3500 BC Andes/Mexico Alpaca/cotton/avaocados Domestications/agricultural societies emerge Trager
3500BC Tigris/Euphrates Boats/oars/sails Commerce between regions Trager
3500BC Tigris/Euphrates Sumerian culture segments Harness animals, bronze tools, priests, etc. Trager
3500-2900BC Uruk/Jemdet Nasr Northern Mesopotamia. Irrigation Canal System devised to support regional irrigation/agriculture Ziggurats/temples/script Cereal-based irrigation agriculture thrives w canal transport/Monumental art/Sculptures/1st script AMNH
3600BC SW Asia Bronze tools 1st lasting cutting edges Trager
4000BC Eastern North America Climate ameliorates River valleys and lakes formed AMNH
4000BC Indus valleys Grains, mangoes, dates Raised on irrigated fields Trager
4000BC Mesopotamia Wheel in use Ý AMNH
4000BC Egypt Papyrus/event records Historical records of events/commerce begin - Brief of 4000-1000BCE Trager
4000BC Western USA Warmer summers/cooler winters More moisture from Gulf of Mexico Ý
4000 BC Pan-civilization End of Stone Age Metals used for ornaments, tools, weapons Trager
c4200BC MagdeburgKolnLiÈge Optimal Climate 1st European cereal cultivated Trager
4350BC Derivka, Ukraine Horse is domesticated New source of power/agriculture Ladurie
4500BC Mesopotamia Plow invented Agricultural Revolution AMNH
5000BC Nile River Margins begin to dry out Egyptians build dikes/channels Prager
5000-3000BC Atlantic Thermal Max onset Ocean heat apex reached Ladurie
5000BC China Silk Worm Images on Ivory Cup from Yangtze River region Chronology Silk Road Silk Road Fndtn
5000BC Persia Domestic cattle common Meat and Milk in diet Trager
5000BC Japan Jomon Pottery Begins Hunter/gatherer culture Arch.
5500BC Persia Copper smelting begins Tools too soft to hold edge Trager
5500BC So. Mesopotamia Sumerians settle in Region build citiesUr, Lugash & Babylon Invent irrigation, written language, and the wheel - first used in pottery making Arch.
5500BC Mesopotamia First settled villages Small scale irrigation/Urban Revolution begins AMNH
5600BC The Role and Opportunities Mesopotamia provided during the last Degalciationneed to be put into perspective

The Great Deluge!

The Black Sea and surrounding area flooded with salt water by the breaching of a narrow strip of land by the rising Mediteranian Sea to create the Strait of Bosporus

In 1996, marine geologists William Ryan and Walter Pitman published a scientifically popular hypothesis, titled Noah's Flood Hypothesis. The researchers presented evidence of a bursting flood about 7,500 years ago in what is now the Black Sea. This, some say, supports the biblical story of Noah and the flood. Genetics of Surname Origins Project(s)
6-1,500 BC China Warm period Permafrost records/reconstruction Feng et al.
6000BC Minnesota Conifer bgn retreat Warm dry vs modern Trager
6000BC Korea Turkic-Manchurian-Mongol people migrate from China Settlements are agriculturally based History
6000-700BC North America plains/woods Hunter gatherer cultures evident Seasonal migrations within region AMNH
6,000 BC Asia/Greece Agriculture spreads Pottery/flax, oxen indicate storage/planning Trager
6,400-6,200BC Levant/Nortern Mesopotamia 200 year drought resulting from Continental Ice-sheet Melts and resulting flooding of North Atlantic Basin Agricultural settlements abandoned, until moistere conditions returned, and alluvial plains were resettled

Weiss & Bradley

Science 291 (26 Jan 2001)

6,5-6,300BC Tigris/Euphrates Wheel invented Facilitates construction, speeds transport Trager
10,000 BC Middle East Goats domesticated Controlled, mobile food supply Trager
6500 BC Tigris/Euphrates Sumerian Culture thrives Irrigation, services appear Trager
7,000 BC Egypt, Iraq, Levant Structured societies City States emerge, "Civilization" thrives Trager
7,000 BC Western USA SW wetter/NW drier/Calif. not SW Pacific warm wet summers/Cal dry cool Ý
7100BC Alaska Glaciers retreat Smaller vs Modern extent Ladurie
7700BC Euphrates/Tigris/Nile Sheep domesticated Wool/Meat/Milk Trager
8-6,500 BC China Warming period Permafrost records/reconstruction Feng et al.
8,000BC Talasea, New Britain Obsidian quarried/worked Start of obsidian trade Pacific Isles ANHS
8,000 BC Euphrates/Tigris/Nile Agriculture Thrives Water needs met, Urbanization begins Trager
8,000 BC Europe Postglacial improvements Fish, shellfish, geese, honey are eaten Trager
9,000 BC Middle East Agriculture begins Stable settlements form Trager
10,000 BC Northern Latitudes Laps/inuits colonize Migratory, herders/hunters extend ranges Trager
10,000 BC Middle East Goats domesticated Controlled, mobile food supply Trager
10,000 BC Southeast Asia Younger Dryas Climate Change, shifts region from arid steppe environment to warm wet winters, and hot dry summers Natufian culture drops hunting and gathering, to take up subsistence agriculture and animal husbandry Weiss & Bradley - Science 291 (26 Jan 2001)
10,000 BC Global Glaciers recede Seasons change, Solar warming intense - Brief of 10,000-4-000BCE Ladurie
12,000 BC Spain El Juyo, cave discovered by team First known religious sanctuary H&B
14,000 BP Asia/Europe Dog domesticated Hunting partners ? Trager
c15,600 BP Great Flood 130 ft sea level rise North western Hemisphere Ice sheet melts Trager
12,000 BP Western USA warming/cool, wet environment Vegetation distribution shifting/next epoch Thompson et al.
18,000 BP Western USA 6-11C colder/wetter environment Vegetation distribution=Wisconsin Maxima Thompson et al.
20,000 BP Europe An Elegantly carved ivory horse was found in a cave in Germany and is dated at about the same time as the mammoth paintings of Vallon Pont D'arc cave in France, 30,000 BC.

Domestication of the Horse

is still Under Discussion

by T.R.Holme.

 20-30,000 BP


 Paleolithic Art

 African Animals European  
25,000BP Global Most recent ICE AGE 2nd Wave Humans Migrate/Australia/New World Trager

4.6 Billion - 36ka BP; or Home:

Exported from 2500BP-2250BC.wkz on 21/03/97 at 11:40:23 AM