35Thousand - 4.6BillionBP

All Things Ancient

Or This Day In History...

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Year Locale Event Social Effects Source
35000 BP Eastern Russia and North America Homo sapiens thrived, leaving behind bones of now extinct species such as mammoths migrations during prior Ice Age

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36000 BP North America Homo sapiens arrived 1st migrations during prior Ice Age Trager
42000 BP Australia Aboriginal culture World's1st seafarers colonize Trager
46000BP Global Previous Ice Age/ 1st waves humans New World/ New Guinea/ Australia Lots of mammals and large flightless birds evolve/extinct, etc. Trager
30-50,000 BP Africa/Asia/Europe H. sapiens emerges H.sapiens/Neanderthal merge into one form Trager

Northeastern America -

The Paleoindian occupation of North America, theoretically the point of entry of the first people to the Americas, is traditionally assumed to have occurred within a short time span beginning at about 12,000 yr B.P.

This is inconsistent with much older South American dates of around 32,000 yr B.P.(1) and the similarity of the Paleoindian toolkit to Mousterian traditions that disappeared about 30,000 years ago(2).

Paleoindian artifacts from Gainey, Leavitt, and Butler, and two later-period artifacts from the same geographic area of Michigan were analyzed for 235U. They were compared with identical chert types representative of the source materials for the artifacts. Control samples were extracted from the inner core of the purest chert known to be utilized by prehistoric people. The Paleoindian artifacts contained about 78 percent as much 235U as the controls and later-period artifacts, suggesting substantial depletion.

Depletion of 235U necessarily indicates that thermal neutrons impacted these artifacts and the surrounding prehistoric landscape, providing Terrestrial Evidence of a Nuclear Catastrophe in Paleoindian Times

This is consistent with cosmic rays focused towards northern latitudes by Earth's magnetic field. Only a very large thermal neutron flux, greater than 1020 n/cm2, could have depleted 235U at all locations.

The 39,000 yr B.P. date proposed for the Gainey site is consistent with the prevailing opinion among many archaeologists about when the Americas were populated. It is also commensurate with dates for South American sites and with a Mousterian toolkit tradition that many see as the Paleoindian precursor. The proposed date for the Gainey site also falls closer in line with the radiocarbon date for a Lewisville, Texas, Paleoindian site of 26,610 ± 300 yr B.P and radiocarbon dates as early as c. 20,000 yr B.P. for Meadowcroft Rockshelter. Since the Lewisville and Meadowcroft sites were likely
exposed at the same time to thermal neutrons, we estimate that their dates should be reset to c. 55,000 yr B.P. and c.45,000 yr B.P., respectively.

Richard B. Firestone & William Topping - March, 2001 article on errors in carbon dating caused quite a reaction 

1.Gruhn, R., in Clovis: Origins and Adaptations, R. Bonnichsen, K. L. Turnmire, eds. (Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 1991), pp 283-286. &

2. Muller-Beck, H., Science 152, 1191 (1985)

200,00 BP Africa/Asia/Europe H. sapiens sapiens appear Larger forebrain, abstractions/speech Trager
300,000 BP Africa/Asia/Europe H. erectus extinct Neanderthals hunt, use fire, bury dead Trager
500,000 BP France Neanderthalers thrive Heavy H. sapiens variety, begin line Trager
1,000,000 BP So. Africa Australopithicus gone H. erectus outcompetes H. habilis Trager
1,600,000 BP Africa/Asia/Pacific Isl. Homo erectus Hunting parties, range extentions Trager
2 million BP Central Africa Homo habilis appears Thin skull, stone shapers, hunters Trager
3-2 million BP Regional habitats respond Monsoons/Seasonal patterns C4 Grasses replace C3 plants/more grasslands

ASU gp

3-2 million BP Global Modern weather patterns emerge Local/regional seasonal patterns stabilize
3 million BP Central America Ithsmus Panama closed Ocean circulation patterns change
3-4 million BP Orogenesis/high mtns Tibetan Plateau Andes/Sierras emerge Restructure atmosphere/climate zones/Monsoons/C4 Plants/Savannas
5 million BP East/So. Africa Homonids evolve Bipedal, sigmoid spine, vegi-scavengers Trager
17 million BP Africa Ponginae(Great Apes) Large size - Chimps and Gorillas Trager
30 Million BP Africa Homonoidaea evolves Tail-less, Trager
East-central Asia Tibetan Plateau emerges Monsoons/C4 Plants/Savannas Habitat generalizes
40 million BP Africa/Asia Anthrapoids evolve Handy, nails, monkeys Trager
65 million BP Global Cataclysm (?) Reptiles, many aquatic spp. extinct
70 million BP Land Primates evolve Small, hiders, big brains
100 million BP Land Placental mammals Advanced gestation, parental care
220 million BP Land Mammalia evolves Fur, eggs, or incomplete gestation
300 million BP Land Reptilia evolve self-sustaining eggs, scaly hides
370 million BP Land Amphibia invade Land Bi-symmetric mobility dominates
450 million BP Land Plants flourish Ecological resources for terrestrial colonization
550 million BP Global Ocean Chordates evolve Oxygen excess environment dominates
600 million BP Global Ocean Multicellular Life Aggregates=colonies
800 million BP Global Ocean Proto-Life begins Amid Redox solutions
0.5-1 billion BP Earth 2nd IceHouse Multicelled fossils appear
ca 2 billion BP Earth AtmosphericOxygen buildup begins Multi-celled invertebrates evolve
2.2 billion BP Earth Iron precipitation, from oxidation
2.5-3 billion BP Earth 1st Ice House-major surface cooling Blue-green algae/Oxygen production
3.0-.8 billion BP Earth Oldest Prokaryote bacteria
4 billion BP Earth Oldest Crustal Rocks Stable substrate formation
4.4 billion BP Earth Ocean Forms Water based planet
4.5-4.6 billion BP Solar System Earth Forms

Now that you find yourself at the Beginning end of my Chronology,

Go To These Two Sites for More Details =

A & B...

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Exported from 4.6Billion-36ka BP.wkz on 21/03/97 at 11:43:06 AM