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Year Locale Event Social Effects Source
1294 England Britain's Grains thrive Sold to European Continent/Local Famines England Trager
~1290 Florence Renaissance End of Medeival Period Trager
1287 Holland Severe Flooding - Destruction and >80,000 died due to widespread inundation . O.Pettersson
1285 London Smog due to Coal burning Rats thrive/Plague endemic Trager
1279 China Era of Division (220- 589 C.E.) the period of political disunity, the Confucian bureaucracy lost its primacy, aristocratic elites regained
temporary dominance, and Buddhism entered China.
Reunification and Renaissance in Chinese Civilization: The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties - ended in 1279 with the Mongol invasion. History
1250 Fabriano. Italy 1st Water powered paper mill Paper replaces parchment as costs drop Burke
1270-1312 England Very Dry period 1270-1312 Ladurie
1200s Korea Ghengis Khan's Mongols occupied Korea during two unsuccessful attempts to invade Japan General Climate transition grips Asia & surrounding regions - creating opportunities for invasions. History
1258 Muslim Arabic Empire Mongols defeat the near powerless region Mongols neglect and region deteriorates more... History
1235-58 England/Germany/Italy/Ireland Crop Failures/Famine 20,000 die in London, alone... Nash/Trager
1250 SW desert NoAm Mogollon culture eclipsed Culture is displaced by Hohokam ANHM
1250 No. Germany/Denmark Hanseatic League extends Changes in Ecosystems' production=regional trading Trager
1250 Asia/rule/Khublai Khan Mongolian Empire Strong Mongols destroy Tigris/Euph. irrigation system Trager
1246, 48, 49, 57 Holland Severe Flooding - Lucas Destruction and Displacement due to inundation widespread. O.Pettersson
1200s SW USA 30 year Drought/Cold Anasazi civilization abandons region Mark Brenner, 2001
1234 Korea First movable metal type invented Print becomes durable, reusable History
1241 North German trading Hanseatic League forms European commerce via organized trade Braudel
1240-90 Baltic Herring Collapse Trade/Fishing Opportunities arise in North Sea Trager/Braudel
1235 England Crop Failures/Famine 20,000 die in London, alone... Nash
1232 Germany Severe Flooding Destruction and Displacement due to inundation widespread. Hoyt
1219 Holland Severe Flooding - Marcellus Destruction and Displacement due to inundation widespread. O.Pettersson
1215 Alps Glacial Adv Ý Ladurie
1215 England Magna Carta Signed Individual Rights/Land Ownership


1231 Japan famine Children sold into slavery Trager
c1200-1450 No. Coastal Peru Chinor Empire Builds Coastal Region Sustains Agriculture/Fishing Thompson2
1206 - 1405 Mongol China Beginning with the Mongol conquests in the thirteenth century, they imposed peace on the regions they enabled the establishment of a Eurasian-wide system of trade and
cultural exchange.
The Last Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur History
1203 British Isles/Germany/Poland Crop Failures/Famine Cheap Balkan grains change economics Trager
1200-1597 Britain/Europe Wood wainscotting/Tapestries Warmed/Adorned Walls/Book copying year round Burke
1199-1202 Egypt Nile fails to rise Crop failures famine, cannibalism, 100,000 die Nash
1193-96 England/France Incessant rains Famine, pestilence/fevers Nash
1185 Camp 100 cold "Little Ice Age Begins ?" Ladurie
1185 England 1st Recorded Fireplace Chimney Changed architecture/social practices Burke
1151-52 Europe/Palestine Drought Famine Nash
1141-51 England Drought Famine Nash
1150-1380 Tibetan Plateau Warming period Permafrost records/reconstruction Yang EOS 2002
1125 Camp 100 Medieval warm (end) Ý Ladurie
1000 SW desert NoAm Mogollon culture in decline Droughts, overworked land cause hardships AMNH
c1100 Southern California Bight Coastal Ocean production declines Pelagic fish/scales decline/ become more erratic Soutar et al.
1100-1150 Tibetan Plateau Cooler period Permafrost records/reconstruction Yang EOS 2002
1096 Palestine 1st Crusade Excess population, agression/religious Trager
1086 China 1st reference Compass/Navigation Shen Ku's Dream Pool essays H&B
1066 England 14th October, at the Battle of Hastings, King Harold was defeated by his rival for the English crown, William Duke of Normandy. After securing Dover, William took Canterbury and struck into Surrey and Berkshire before entering London. He was crowned on Christmas Day 1066 in Westminster Abbey.

Norman Conquest ravaged northern counties, Norman knights on horseback dominated English foot soldiers. This battle marked the end of the Saxon era.

No field workers for 9 years - Famines resulted &

>50 thousands died

1055 China/western map Oldest Known Map printed 1st rockets developed H&B
c 1050 Ecuador Sta Elena Peninsula Highland Dry Period Begins Libertad Culture Begins to Build Thompson/2
c 1050 So. Coastal Peru Highland Dry Period Begins Coastal Cultures Begin to Rebuild Thompson/2
1046 England Severest Winter in memory February cold kills/stock/fish/people AngSaxChron
1051-1270 China Longest recorded dry spell

(Shift Happens)

Feng et al.

1035 China Painting of Spinning Wheel H&B
1000 SW desert NoAm Pueblo culture evolves Some evidence for Anasazi to Pueblo shift AMNH
1000-1500CE Postclassic Mesoamerica The most important of the Mesoamerican civilizations were those of the Toltecs and Aztecs. Some evidence for Anasazi to Pueblo shift AMNH
982-985 Greenland/Vikings Eric the Red sets up camp/colonize

The Americas on the Eve of Invasion

980 Camp 100 warm Ý Ladurie
968 Egypt Nile fails to rise 600,000 die Nash
811-1050 China Longest recorded wet spell Feng et al.
950-1100 Southern Canadian Rockies In North America, tree-ring chronologies from the southern Canadian Rockies have provided evidence for higher treelines and wider ring-widths suggesting warmer temperatures and more favorable growing
conditions (Luckman, 1994)

Similar results have been derived from tree-ring analyses of bristlecone pines in the White Mountains of California, where much
greater growth was recorded in the 11th and 12th centuries
(Leavitt, 1994).

CO2 Science
800-1200 Lake Titicaca Long Moderate Period Tiahuanaco Culture Thrived Thompson2
800-1100 North America plains/woods Maize agriculture dominates AMNH
800-1000 Coastal Ecuador End of Long Wet Period Coastal Peninsula Abandoned Thompson/2
800-1100 Europe Medieval Industrialization 1st Water wheels/cams/Mills/ Burke
800-1500 Europe Middle Age era - Feudalism, Churches, Governments Western Culture in the Postclassical Era History
800-1500 Africa Eurasian system of trade and exposed the emerging states of Africa to new concepts of religion, commerce, and political organization. African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam History
809 Charlemagne Empire Famine Trager
800s Mississippi Watershed Flood Proxy Records/major decadal scale episodes "spawned by the export of extremely moist gulf air to midcontinental North America that was driven by natural same-time-scale oscillations in Gulf of Mexico ocean currents." Brown, Kennett, and Ingram
800-1400 China Warming period Permafrost records/reconstruction Yang EOS 2002
~950 Abbasid Asia Territory Mongol Army conquers Abbasids Expansion of Islam into South and Southeast Asia and Africa History
800-1100 Tibetan Plateau Warming period Permafrost records/reconstruction Yang EOS 2002
800-900 MesoAmerica Prolonged Severe Drought

Mayan Civilization collapses

806 Japan Famine Trager
750-1000AD SW desert NoAm Mimbres pottery appears Mogollon farmer culture peaks AMNH
752-800 Muslim Arabic Empire choses Capital - Baghdad Baghdad grows to million people, Mesopotamia speak Arabic and worship Allah Arabs reach new heights of science and culture, and trade. History
750 Alps Glacial term. Ý Ladurie
750 Iberian Peninsula Famine then Plague Trager
746-49 Constantinople Plague/spreads to Calabria, Greece and Sicily Worst since 415 seige Trager/Nash
700-1000 High Colorado Plateau Anasazi culture blossoms Pit dwellings/Chaco phenomenon evolves AMNH
700-1350 North American Southwest Desert, South America, Scandinavia, New Zealand and Alaska Analyses of bristlecone pines in the White Mountains of California, showed greater growth was recorded in the 11th and 12th centuries
(Leavitt, 1994). By analyzing 13C/12C ratios in the rings of these trees, it was also found that soil moisture conditions were more favorable in this region during the Medieval Warm Period (Leavitt, 1994). Simultaneous increases in precipitation were additionally found to have occurred in monsoonal locations of the United States desert southwest, where there are indications of increased lake levels from A.D. 700-1350 (Davis, 1994).
Other data document vast glacial retreats during the Medieval Warm Period in parts of South America, Scandinavia, New Zealand and Alaska (Grove and Switsur,
1994; Villalba, 1994); and ocean-bed cores suggest global sea surface temperatures were warmer then as well (Keigwin, 1996a, 1996b).
CO2 Science
~650 Peru Highlands Prolonged Wet Period Begins Huari Cultures Thrive Thompson2
644 Japan Famine


642 Alexandria Egypt Moslems sack/burn city Great library/500,000 scrolls lost


637 Mesopotamia

Arab Muslims began era of conquests

Birth of Islam 622AD

Defeated Sassanids, and begin expansion that reaches from Spain to China by 8th Century - The Rise and Spread of Islam History
610 Camp 100 Medieval warm (begins) Ý Ladurie
~600 So. Peru Coast End of Wet Period/30 year drought Coastal Culture Abandons Region Thompson2
590 Rome Plague Subsides quickly Trager
558 Byzantine Empire Plague Heavy loss of life Trager
542 Europe Rats spread out Plague from Syria/Egypt spreads Trager
541 Egypt/Roman/Byzantium Bubonic Plague 5-10000/day die/agriculture halts Trager
536 Mediterranean "Dry Fog" Volcanic Dust causes most severe winter Trager
533-1453 Byzantine Empire - Eastern Mediterranean & North Africa Emperor Justinian (d565) attempted to restore the unity of the ancient Mediterranean. The Islamic explosion of the seventh century resulted in the loss of the empire's eastern provinces The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe History
479 Sicily Mount Etna Eruption First Historical Record H/B
476 Rome End of Roman Empire Last Emperor/Romulus Augustulus/dethroned AMNH
450-452 Italy Famine/Attila the Hun/retreats Epidemic causes Attila to cease seige of Rome Trager
400-500 Europe Collapse of Roman Empire Germanic tribes migrated south/east/colonized AMNH
400 Alps Glacial Adv Europe cooler Ladurie



Global Stressful Times - Asia's Political Evolution - The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Korea, Japan and Vietnam & into the 20th Century Classical Cultural era Ends Ladurie

2200BC-309AD; or Home:

Exported from 400-1294AD on 24/03/97 at 18:44:56 PM