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or at the Svensmark website for more explicit description of his own thoughts: <http://www.dsri.dk/~hsv/>
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The Russian Geophysical Cimate research community has been decades ahead of the western world of science in making monthly observations for the entire northern Hemisphere's Atmospheric Circulation and its implications having initiated their ACI studies from the pole to about 20N - starting with Vangeneim, 1940. This was all rediscovered and championed by Dzerdzeevskaya, B.L., and V.M. Kuganskaya, and Z.M. Vitvitskaya. 1946. (Translated title) Classification of Circulation Mechanisms Over the Northern hemisphere, and Features of Synoptic Seasons. Trudy - NIU GUGMS Series 11, Issue 21.
There are 13 Categories, comprising 30 or so special classes or patterns that get attributed to these - then these are further combined into the three ACI categories - as per the various generations staring with Vangengeim, in the 1930-40s.
The objective was to show that there were two epochs that
were identified starting with the 1899 observations, and ending
with 1966. The Two Epochs ended
Four known transitions occurred in 1922-24; 1952-54; 1975-77,
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dates - i.e., 1940-42; 1963-65; 1988-91.
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NAO - The NAO is a much older concept- again, based on cyclical observations made from North_South located sensor observations, based on the difference of normalized sea level pressure (SLP) between Ponta Delgada, Azores and Stykkisholmur/Reykjavik, Iceland since 1865. The Punta Delgado station went down 1998
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CLIVAR Report has a good 'modrn' insight collection: <http://www.clivar.org/publications/other_pubs/iplan/iip/pd1.htm>
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