Aber, James, Detailed Chronology of Late Holocene Climatic Change website
Allan, Rob, Janette Lindesay, and David Parker. 1996. El Niño Southern Oscillation & Climatic Variability, CSIRO Publication 405pp, plus CD-ROM.
AMNH: The Illustrated History of Mankind, 5 Vols. 1994. Weldon Owen PTY Limited/Bra Bocker AB
Roger Y. Anderson, "Possible connection between surface winds, solar activity, and the earth's magnetic field," Nature, v. 358, pp. 51-53, 1992.
Roger Y. Anderson, and B. D. Allen,1993. "Evidence from western North America for rapid shifts in climate during the lastglacial maximum," Science, v. 260, pp. 1920-1923.

Roger Y. Anderson, and W.E. Dean. 1995."Filling the Delaware Basin: Hydrologic and climatic controls on the Permian Castile evaporite," in Scholle, T.M. Peryt and D.S. Ulmer-Scholle (eds), The Permian of the Northern Continents: Facies, Faunas, and Paleogeography; Springer-Verlag, v. 2, p. 61-78.

Roger Y. Anderson, 1996. "Seasonal sedimentation: Framework for reconstructing environmental and climatic change," in Kemp, A.E.S., Paleoclimatiolgogy and Paleoceanography of Laminated Sediments, London, Geological Society Special Publication, v. 116, p.1-15.

 Roger Y. Anderson, Univ.of New Mexico, Albuquerque; and Robert B. Dunbar, Stanford University.1995. Reconstructing Past Global Change in Western North America, Earth in Space, Vol. 8, No. 2, October 1995, p. 4. American Geophysical Union.

Bardson, harbor seal epidemic pnuemonia...

 Baumgartner, T.R., J. Michaelsen, L.G. Thompson, G.T. Shen, A. Soutar, and R.E. Casey. 1989. The recording of interannual climatic change by high-resolution natural systems: tree-rings, coral bands, glacial ice layers, and marine varves. pp.1-15 In: Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and Western Americas, AGU Geophysical Monog. 55.

Baumgartner, T. R., A. Soutar and V.Ferreira-Bartrina. 1992. Reconstruction of the history of Pacific sardine and northern anchovy populations over the past two millennia from sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, California. CalCOFI Report 33:24-40.

Boer, George J., Markus Stowasser, and Kevin Hamilton, 2007. Inferring climate sensitivity from volcanic events. Climate Dynamics Vol. 28, No 5, pp. 481-502, April 2007

Brown, P., Kennett, J.P. and Ingram B.L. 1999. Marine evidence for episodic Holocene megafloods in North America and the northern Gulf of Mexico. Paleoceanography 14: 498-510.
Braudel, Fernand. 1985. V1. The Structures of Everyday Life: the limits of the possible; V2. The Wheels of Commerce; V3. The Perspective of the World. Perennial Library - Harper and Row, New York.
Burke, James. 1978. Connections. Macmillan London Limited. 304pp.
Michael Chinnery, ex-Director NGDC, Boulder, CO.
COADS - NOAA Description data entry <>
COADS - NOAA Data Access: <>
Colebrook, J.M. 1991. Continuous plankton records: from seasons to decades in the plankton of the North-east Atlantic. p.29-46. In: Long-term Variability of Prlagic Fish Populations and their Environment, Kawasaki et al. eds. Pergamon Press, Tokyo.
Congress, Act of US

Ulrich Cubasch, Eduardo Zorita, Frank Kaspar, Jesus F. Gonzalez-Rouco, Hans von Storch, Kerstin Prommel. 2006. Simulation of the role of solar and orbital forcing on climate. Advances in Space Research, 37:1629–1634.
Diaz, H.F., and V. Markgraf. 1992. El Niño: historical and paleoclimatic aspects of the Southern Oscillation. Cambridge University Press. 476pp.

Dietz et al. Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change

Druffel, E.M. 1985. Detection of El Niño and decade time scale variations of sea surface temperature from banded coral records: implications for the carbon cycle. pp.111-122 In: The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2: Natural variations Archean to Present. (E.T Sundquist and W.S. Broecker, eds.) AGU Monog. 32.

Druffel, E.M., R.B. Dunbar, G.M. Wellington and S.A. Minnis. 1989. Reef-building corals and identification of ENSO warming episodes. In: Global Ecological Consequences of the 1982-83 El Niño-Southern Oscillation. (P.W. Glynn, ed.) Elsevier Press, Amsterdam.

Ebbesmeyer, C.C., D.R. Cayan, D.R. McLain, F.H. Nichols, D.H. Peterson, K.T. Redmond. 1991. 1976 Step in the Pacific Climate:Forty environmental changes between1968-1975 and 1977-1984. In: Proc. Seventh Annual Pacific Climate Conference (PACLIM) Workshop, April 1990. Calif. Dept. of Water Resources. Interagency Ecological Studies Program Tech. Rep. 26, 115-126. 26, 115-126.

Paul R. Epstein. 1995, Climate, Ecology, and Human Health CONSEQUENCES

Epstein, P. R., and G. P. Chikwenhere, 1994: Biodiversity questions (Ltr.). Science, 265, 1510-1511.

Francis, R. C. and S. R. Hare. 1994. Decadal-scale regime shifts in the large marine ecosystems of the Northeast Pacific: a case for historical science. Fish. Oceanogr. 3:279-291.
Ellett, D.J. and J. Blindheim, 1992. Climate and hydrographic variability in the ICES area during the 1980's. ICES Mar. Sci. Symp., 195, 11-31.
FAO Fisheries Department. 1992. Marine Fisheries and the Law of the Sea: a decade of change. FAO Fisheries Circular 853:69pp.
Fay and Kelly
Feng, X. H., and S. Epstein, 1994. Climatic implications of an 8000-year hydrogen isotope time series from bristlecone pine trees, Science, 265 (5175), 1079-1081,

Galactic Cosmic rays - GCR - - the Svensmark Galactic Cosmic Rays issues are well described and referenced by Mercurio - as his is the only synthetic overview to date on the broader subjects of Solar and GCR relations. <>

or at the Svensmark website for more explicit description of his own thoughts: <>

J. R. Geraci and D. J. St. Aubin (eds.), 1990. Sea mammals and oil: confronting the risks, pp. 223–234. Academic Press. 

Girs, A.A. - a 43 page 1956 USNavy Document "Interrelation of Processes in the A tmosphere and Hydrosphere" OPNAV PO3-31
prepared by AA Girs of the Central Office of the Northern Sea Route, Ministry of the Sea Fleet, Arctic Research Institute, Moscow-Leneingrad, USSR - translated
by Nina A. Stepanova, Meteorologist, U.S. Weather Bureau. (Contains the descriptions of the basic fileds of the mature phases of the three ACI Types, over the northen hemisphere, with pressure maps - and trajectories of H-L pairs as these patterns evolved.) and

Girs A.A. 1971. Macrocirculation method for long-term meteorological prognosis, Hydrometizdat Publ., Leningrad, p. 480. (in Russian),

Glantz, M.H., R. Katz and M. Krenz. 1987. The Societal Impacts Associated with the 1982-83 Worldwide Climate Anomalies. 105pp. NCAR/ESIG, Boulder, Colorado.

Glantz, M.H. 1996. Currents of Change: El Niño's Impact on Climate and Society. Cambridge University Press, 200pp.

Glantz, M.H., and L.E. Feingold (eds.). 1990. Climate Variability, Climate Change and Fisheries. Environmental and Societal Impacts Group, NCAR, Boulder, CO. 139pp.

Glantz, M.H. and J.D. Thompson (eds.). 1981. Resource Management and Environmental Uncertainty: Lessons from coastal upwelling fisheries. P. Adv. Env. Sci. vol. 11, Wiley-Interscience. 491pp.

Glantz, M.H. R. Katz, and N. Nicholls (eds.) 1991. ENSO Teleconnections linking worldwide climate anomalies: Scientific basis and societal impacts. Cambridge university Press, Cambridge, UK.

Gray, W.M. 1990: Strong association between west African rainfall and U.S. landfall of intense hurricanes. Science, 249:1251-1256.

Gray, W.M., and J.D. Sheaffer. 1991. El Niño and QBO influences on tropical cyclone activity. pp.257-284. In: Glantz, M.H. R. Katz, and N. Nicholls (eds.) ENSO Teleconnections linking worldwide climate anomalies: Scientific basis and societal impacts. Cambridge university Press, Cambridge, UK.

Harvell et al. Emerging Marine Diseases--Climate Links and Anthropogenic Factors <>

Hellemans, A., and B.Bunch. 1991. The Timetables of Science. Simon and Schuster, Touchstone, New York. 660pp.

Hjort, J. 1914 The fluctuations in the great fisheries of northern Europe viewed in the light of biological research. Rapp. P-v. Reun. Cons. int. Explor. Mer. 20:1-228.

Hjort, J. 1926. Fluctuations in the year classes of important food fishes. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 1:5-38

Hoyt, D.V., and K. H. Schatten, 1997. The Role of the Sun in Climate Change, Oxford University Press, 279 pp.
IFOP. 1985. Taller Nacional: fenomeno El Niño 1982-83. Invest. Pesq. (Chile) 32. Numero especial. 256pp.

IPCC. 1990. Impacts Assessment of Climate Change. The policymaker's summary of the Report of Working Group II to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. WMO/UNEP. Australian Government Publishing Service. Canberra.

IPCC.1996. Climate Change 1995 - The Science of Climate Change - Working Group I report, 1996, 584 pp., Climate Change 1995 - Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change - Working Group II report, 1996, 880 Climate Change 1995 - Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change - Working Group III report, 1996, 608 pp. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.

Kalidas, G.N. and S.K. Sinha. 1991. ENSO, monsoon and drought in India. pp431-458. In: Glantz, Katz and Nicholls (see above reference- Glantz, Katz, Nicholls 1991).

Jacobson, Mark Z., and Yoram J. Kaufman, 2006. Wind reduction by aerosol particles. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24814, doi:10.1029/2006GL027838, December 27, 2006, online

Kawasaki, T. 1983: Why do some fishes have wide fluctuations in their number? - A biological basis of fluctuation from the viewpoint of evolutionary ecology. G.D. Sharp and J. Csirke, eds. pp.1065-1080 In: Proceedings of the Expert Consultation to Examine Changes in Abundance and Species Composition of Neritic Fish Resources. FAO Fish. Rep. 291(3).

Kawasaki, T., S. Tanaka, Y. Toba and A. Taniguchi, eds. 1991. Long-term Variability of Pelagic Fish Populations and Their Environment. Pergamon Press, Tokyo.

Klyashtorin L.B. 2001. Climate change and long term fluctuations of commercial catches: the possibility of forecasting. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No 410 ,
98 p.; FAO (Food Agriculture Organization) of the United Nations, Rome.

The Russian Geophysical Cimate research community has been decades ahead of the western world of science in making monthly observations for the entire northern Hemisphere's Atmospheric Circulation and its implications having initiated their ACI studies from the pole to about 20N - starting with Vangeneim, 1940. This was all rediscovered and championed by Dzerdzeevskaya, B.L., and V.M. Kuganskaya, and Z.M. Vitvitskaya. 1946. (Translated title) Classification of Circulation Mechanisms Over the Northern hemisphere, and Features of Synoptic Seasons. Trudy - NIU GUGMS Series 11, Issue 21.

There are 13 Categories, comprising 30 or so special classes or patterns that get attributed to these - then these are further combined into the three ACI categories - as per the various generations staring with Vangengeim, in the 1930-40s.

The objective was to show that there were two epochs that were identified starting with the 1899 observations, and ending with 1966. The Two Epochs ended
in 1923, and then again in 1953, forming one coplete cycle. Since 1954, up to 2002, the Arctic Institute has identified a repeat of that earlier cycle, which
may have finalized in 1998- with the recent generic Global Regime Shift that everyone is predicting - and that various ocean processes and responses by
organisms and weather phenomena - told us occurred with the final close-out of the 1976 Warm Step.

Four known transitions occurred in 1922-24; 1952-54; 1975-77, and 1997-99 ; with the antilog peaks being centered between these dates - i.e., 1940-42; 1963-65; 1988-91.
There are also works that describe observed relations between the Earth Rotation Rate Changes (-LOD) and atmospheric motion/transfers.
1. Sidorenkov, N.S. On the role of atmosphere as a possible trigger of the long-term fluctuations in the earth rotation velocity. Astronomichestkii Zhurnal, 1979 v. 56. pp. 187­199.(in Russian)
2. Sidorenkov, N.S. and Svirenko, P.I. The long-term changes in the atmospheric circulation and climate fluctuations over the first synoptic region. Gidrometcenter (Hodrometeocentre), 1991, v .31, pp. 93­105.(in Russian

Klyashtorin, L.B.; Lyubushin, A.A. (2005) Cyclic climate changes and fish productivity. VNIRO Publishing: Moscow, Russia. ISBN 5-85382-212-8. 235 pp. - in Russian - This is now being translated for publication in English, along with some powerful messages about the value of this approach in contrast to the various methods employed around the globe in fisheries management settings of various dimmensions -

Kondo, K. 1980. The recovery of the Japanese sardine - the biological basis of stock-size fluctuations. Rapp. p.-v. RÈun. Cons. perm. int. Explor. Mer 177:332-354.
 Krueger, S.K. and J. E. Burks. Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates During TOGA COARE Over the Intensive Flux Array. 1998. Proceedings of the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, Tucson, Arizona , DOE, (in press). 4pp. s
 Kurlansky, M. 1997. Cod. Walker and Co. New York. 294pp.
Le Roy Ladurie, E. 1971. Times of feast, times of famine: A history of climate since the year 1000. Doubleday, Garden City, N.Y. 426 pp.
Lamb, H.H. Publication list

Laskar, J. 2003. Chaos in the Solar System. in Chaos et Déterminisme (eds Dahan. A., Chabert, J. L. & Chemla, K.) (Seuil, Paris, in press).

Laws&Taylor -

 Tamara S. Ledley, Eric T. Sundquist, Stephen E. Schwartz, Dorothy K. Hall, Jack D. Fellows, and Timothy L. Killeen. 1999. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases. EOS Vol. 80, No. 39, September 28, p. 453.
Lindquist, A. 1983. Herring and sprat: fishery ndependent variations in abundance. pp813-822 In: Sharp&Csirke FAO Fish. Rep.Ser. 291

Loeb, V. and O. Rojas. 1988. Interannual variation of ichthyoplankton composition and abundance relations off northern Chile. Fish. Bull., U.S., 86(1):1-24.

Loeb, V., V. Siegel, 0. Holm-Hansen, R. Hewitt, W. Fraser, W. Trivelpiece, S. Trivelpiece, 1997. Effects of sea-ice extent and krill or salp dominance on the Antarctic food web. Nature 387, 897-900.

Loeb, V.E., P.E. Smith, and H.G. Moser. 1983a. Ichthyoplankton and zooplankton abundance patterns in the California Current area, 1975 CalCOFI Rep 24:109-131

Loeb, V.E., P.E. Smith, and H.G. Moser. 1983b. Geographical and seasonal patterns of larval fish species structure in the California Current area, 1975. CalCOFI Rep. 24:132-151.

Lyakhov, M. E. - 159 page 'Results of Researches of the International Geophysical Project, Collection of Articles No. 13' METEOROLOGICAL RESEARCHES, M.E. Lyakhov, editor - 1968, Moscow "Climatological and Circulation Epochs in the Northern Hemisphere in the First half of the 20th Century, translated in 1970 from Russian by the Israel Progarm for Scientific Translations. available from the Dept. of Commerce under IPST catalog number 5753.
(Contains a blow-by-blow descrition of how the monthly numbers are combined to create the Index, and then a dozen or so papers on various processes and events - such as Arctic Intrusions into the various sectors of tye Northern hemisphere, on to seasonal patterns of precipitation, and such. There are 13 Categories, comprising 30 or so special classes or patterns that get attributed to these - then these are further combined into the three ACI categories - as per the various generations staring with Vangengeim, in the 1930-40s.)

 McDougall, Walter, 1993. Let The Sea Make A Noise. Avon Books, New York 783pp.
 Mather, III, F.J., J.M. Mason, jr., and A.C. Jones. 1995. Historical Document: Life History and Fisheries of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC­370. 165pp.

 NAO - The NAO is a much older concept- again, based on cyclical observations made from North_South located sensor observations, based on the difference of normalized sea level pressure (SLP) between Ponta Delgada, Azores and Stykkisholmur/Reykjavik, Iceland since 1865. The Punta Delgado station went down 1998

A more elaborate history of the definitive insights begins at: <>

CLIVAR Report has a good 'modrn' insight collection: <>

But David Cushing and R. R. Dickson (1976) expressly used to define the consequences of NAO-driven climate on ecologiocal changes within the ocean

Nash, Jay Robert, 1977. Darkest Hours. Wallaby, New York, 792pp.

National Center for Atmospheric Research/Post ESIG, Boulder, Colorado <>

Integrative Research - Service to Society - Education for the Future <>

Climate Affairs: <>
 Oldfield, F. 2000. Out of Africa. Nature 403: 370-371.

 PDO - The PDO was coined by Steve Hare, a fisheries biologist of U. Washington during his thesis work, and more fully elaborated with Nathan Mantua - a true
oceanographer - helped define their concept: <> original publication with his Thesis advisor - Bob Francis:
Francis, R. C. and S.R. Hare. 1994. Decadal-scale regime shifts in the large marine ecosystems of the Northeast Pacific: a case for historical science. Fish. Oceanogr. 3: 279-291.

Kevin Trenbreth and colleagues may have actually started these folks on their pathway: Trenberth, K.E., 1990: Recent observed interdecadal climate changes in the
northern hemisphere. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 71, 988-993.

Trenberth, K.E. and J.W. Hurrell, 1994: Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in
the Pacific. Clim. Dyn. 9, 303-319.

Parrish, R.H. and A.D. MacCall. 1978. Climatic variation and exploitation in the Pacific mackerel fishery. Calif. Dep. Fish. Game Fish. Bull. 167:109pp.

Parrish, R. and D. Mallicoate. 1995. Variation in the condition factors of California pelagic fishes and associated environmental factors. Fish. Oceanogr. 4:(2):171-190.

Parrish, R.H., D.L. Mallicoate and R.A. Klingbeil. 1985. Age dependent fecundity, number of spawnings per year, sex ratio, and maturation stages in northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax. Fish. Bull., US. 84(3):503-517.

Parrish, R.H., C.S. Nelson and A. Bakun. 1981. Transport mechanisms and reproductive success of fishes in the California Current. Biol. Ocean. 1(2):175-203.

Parker, K. S., T. C. Royer and R. B. Deriso. 1995. High- climate forcing and tidal mixing by the 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle and low-frequency recruiting trends in Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). Pages 447-459 in R. J. Beamish, editor. Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations Pub. Can. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121.

Payne, A.I.L., J.A. Gulland, and K. Brink, eds.. 1987. The Benguela and Comaparble Ecosystems. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 5:957pp.

Payne, A.I.L., K.H. Brink, K.H. Mann, and R. Hilborn, eds. 1991. Benguela Trophic Functioning. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 12:1205pp.

Pauly, D. and I. Tsukayama, eds. 1987. The Peruvian Anchoveta and its Upwelling Ecosystem: Three Decades of Change. IMARPE;GTZ;ICLARM, Callao, Peru. 351pp.

Pauly, D., P. Muck, J. Mendo, and I. Tsukayama, eds. 1989. The Peruvian Anchoveta and its Upwelling Ecosystem:Dynamics and Interactions. IMARPE;GTZ;ICLARM, Callao, Peru. 438pp.

Pauly, D., J. Christensen, J. Dalsgaard, R. Froese, F. Torres, Jr. 1998. Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279: 860-863.

Pauly, D. 1996 One hundred million tonnes of fish, and fisheries research. Fisheries Research 25(1): 25-38.

Pauly, D., V. Christensen, J. Dalsgaard, R. Froese and F. Torres, jr. 1998. Fishing down marine food webs. Science 229:860-862.

Perry, C.A. 1995. Association between solar-irradiance variations and hydroclimatology of selected regions of the USA, p. 239-242 in Proceedings of 6th International Meeting on Statistical Climatology, Galway, Ireland, June 19-23, 1995: Steering Committee for International Meetings on Statistican Climatology,

Perry, C.A. 1994. Solar-irradiance variations and regional precipitation fluctuations in the western United States: International Journal of Climatology, 14:969-983.

Perry, C.A. 2000. A regression model for annual streamflow in the upper Mississippi River Basin based on solar irradiance, in West, G.J., and Buffaloe, Lauren, eds., Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Pacific Climate Workshop, Santa Catalina Island, California, May 24-27, 1999; Interagency Ecological Program for Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Technical Report. 65:161-170.

Perry, C.A., and Hsu, K.J. 2000. Geophysical, archaeological, and historical evidence support a solar-output model for climate change: Proceedings of National Academy of Science, 97(23):1244-12438.

Published online 24 November 2005 in Wiley InterScience < DOI: 10.1002/joc.1248>

Perry, C.A. 2007 In Review - Effects of Total Solar Irradiance , Galactic cosmic rays, and magnetic Index AA on Regional Hydroclimate. Advances in Space Research.

 Polovina, J.J., G. T. Mitchum, and 0. T. Evans. 1995. Decadal and basin-scale variation in mixed layer depth and the impact on biological production in the Central and North Pacific. 1960-88. Deep Sea Res. 42:1710-1716.
Quinn, W.H., V.T. Neal, S.E. Antunez de Mayolo. 1987. El Niño occurrences over the past four and a half centuries. J. Geophys. Res. 92:14,449-14,461.
Quinn, W.H. 1992. A study of Southern Oscillation-related climatic activity for A.D. 622-1900 incorporating Nile River flood data. pp119-149 In: Diaz and Markgraf (see above).
Runes, D.D. 1962. Treasury of World Science. Littlefield, Adams and Co. Patterson, N.J.978pp.
Sharp, G.D. and D.R. McLain. 1993a. Comments on the global ocean observing capabilities, indicator species as climate ptoxies, and the need for timely ocean monitoring. Oceanography 5(3):163-168.
Sharp, G.D. and D.R. McLain. 1993b. Fisheries, El Niño-Southern Oscillation and upper ocean temperature records: An eastern Pacific example. Oceanography 6(1):13-22.
Sinclair, A.F., and S.A.Murawski. 1997. Why have groundfish stocks declined? p. 71-93 In: Northwest Atlantic groundfish: perspectives on a fishery collapse. (Boreman, J.; Nakashima, B.S.; Wilson, J.A.; Kendall, R.L., eds.) American Fisheries Society; Bethesda, MD.

SOI & ENSO - Walker and Bliss (1932) were the first to ask who, when - and came to the conclusion that the concept had its roots in the "... opposition of pressure
between Sydney and Buenos Ayres noticed by (Hugo Hildebrand) Hildebranson in 1897..." as ferreted out by Rob Allan and Australian colleagues in their "El
Niño Southern Oscillation & Climate Variability - CSIRO (1996). This is a treasure trove of the information you seek about ENSO and SOI, including over
100 years of monthly patterns on CD-ROM.

Allan et al also relate that interesting links between atmosphere phenomena, weather, terrestrial magnetism and solar physics flourished within European
countries and their colonies during the 19th century - studies by Henry Blanford, Sir John Elliot, Sir Norman, William Lockyer - and later Gilbert Walker provided the foundation for what is now called ENSO cycles. Walker's 1920s insights into the "Walker Circulation" are equivalent to the more recent Marcel Leroux descriptions of Polar Atmospheric Dynamics and their effects on weather, and climate dynamics from ENSO-scale and beyond - likely linked to extra-terrestrial dynamics ranging from Solar to Galactic Cosmic Rays - as well as Milankovich.

Soutar, A. and J.D. Isaacs. 1974. Abundance of pelagic fish during the 19th and 20th centuries as recorded in anaerobic sediments of the Californias. Fish. Bull., US, 72:257-273.

Soutar, A. and P.A. Crill. 1977. Sedimentation and climatic patterns in the Santa Barbara Basin during the 19th and 20th centuries. Bull. Geol. Soc. of America. 88:1161-1172.

Southward, A.J. 1974a. Changes in the plankton community in the western English Channel. Nature, 259:5433.

_____________1974b. Long term changes in abundance of eggs in the Cornish pilchard (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum) off Plymouth. J. Mar. Biol. Assn. UK NS 47:81-95.

Southward, A.J., E.I. Butler and L. Pennycuick. 1975. Recent cyclic changes in climate and abundance of marine life. Nature, 253:714-717.

Southward A.J., G.T. Boalch, and L. Mattock (1988) Fluctuations in the herring and pilchard fisheries of Devon and Cornwall linked to change in climate since the 16th century. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, 68:423-445.

 Stahle, D.W., Cook, E.R., Cleaveland, M.K, Therrell, M.D., Meko, D.M., Grissino-Mayer, H.D., Watson, E. and Luckman, B.H. 2000. Tree-ring data document 16th century megadrought over North America. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 81: 121, 125.
 Stine, S. 1994. Extreme and persistent drought in California and Patagonia during medieval time. Nature, 369,546-549.
 SVENSMARK, Henrick, JENSOLAF P. PEDE RSEN, NIGEL D. MARSH, MARTIN B. ENGHOF F and ULRIK I. UGGERHØJ  2006. Experimental evidence for the role of ions in particle nucleation under atmospheric conditions.
Proc. R. Soc. Adoi:10.1098/rspa. 2006.1773 - 11pp.

Svensmark, Henrick, 2007. COSMOCLIMATOLOGY: a . A&G Feb 2007. 46:18-24. <>

TESTER, PATRICIA A., RICHARD P. STUMPF and PATRICIA K. FOWLER. 1988. Red tide, the first occurrence in North Carolina waters, an overview. In: Oceans '88 Proceedings, vol. 3, p. 808-811. Marine Technology Society, Washington, D.C.

TESTER, PATRICIA A., PER CARLSSON, EDNA GRANELI and LAURITA BONI. 1995. Influences of riverine humic substances on bacteria protozoa, phytoplankton, and copepods in a coastal plankton community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 127: 213-221.

TESTER, PATRICIA A , JEFFERSON T. TURNER and DAMIAN SHEA. 2000. Vectorial transport of toxins from the dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve through copepods to fish. Journal of Plankton Research 22: 47-61

Thompson, L. G., M. E. Davis, E. Mosely-Thompson, T. A. Sowers, K. A. Henderson, V. S. Zagorodnov, P.-N. Lin, V. N. Mikhalenko, R. K. Campen, J. F. Bolzan, J. Cole-Dai, and B. Francou, 1998. A 25,000-year tropical climate history from Bolivian ice cores, Science, 282, 1858-1864,.

Thompson, L. G., E. Mosely-Thompson, M. Davis, P. N. Lin, T. Yao, M. Dyurgerov, and J. Dai, 1993. "Recent Warming": Ice core evidence from tropical ice cores with emphasis on central Asia, Global and Planetary Change, 7, 145-156.

Thompson, L. G., E. Mosely-Thompson, M. E. Davis, J. F. Bolzan, J. Dai, T. Yao, N. Gundestrup, X. Wu, L. Klein, and Z. Xie, 1989. Holocene-late pleistocene climatic ice core records from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Science, 246, 474-477.

Thompson, L. G., E. Mosely-Thompson, M. E. Davis, P.-N. Lin, K. A. Henderson, J. Cole-Dai, J. F. Bolzon, and K.-B. Liu, 1995. Late glacial stage and holocene tropical ice core records from Huascaran, Peru, Science, 269, 46-48,

Trager, James. 1992. The People's Chronology. New York. 1237 pp.
Trager, James. 1997. The Food Chronology.Henry Holt and Company. 783pp.
Tuchman, Barbara . 1978. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century, Ballantine Books, (Economics, Disease, Social Strife, Religion)
 US Global Change Research Government website
Vangengeim, G.Ya., Long-term prediction of air temperature river debacle. National Hydrological Institute,1940, issue .10, p. 207­236 (in Russian);
Verschuren, D., Laird, K.R. and Cumming, B.F. 2000. Rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa during the past 1,100 years. Nature 403: 410-414.

Walker, G.T. 1910. On the meteorlogical evidence for supposed changes of climate in India, mem. India Meteorol. Dep. XXI, Part 1. 21pp.

__________ 1930. Seasonal forecasting. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 56:359-364.

__________ 1947. Arctic conditions and world weather. Quart. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 73:226-256.

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