3000BC to 19th Century Heritage: Mathematics,Science Writings and NaturalHistory

1887 San Francisco, CA Lick 91cm refracting telescope installed Mt. Hamilton/1st on mountaintop
1883 Amsterdam last known quagga/subspecies of plains zebra dies in zoo
1869 Russia Dmitri MendelÈev publishes Periodic Table/missing elements will be found
1865-69 Austria Gregor Mendel 1st publishes his theories/data
1859 England Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species...
1855 USA Matthew Fontaine Maury's Physical Geography of the Sea = 1st Oceanography text
1851 England William Thomson:aka Lord Kelvin poses the concept of Absolute Zero
1850 Poland Rudolf Clausius/a closed system will always change toward heat and disorder
1849 England William Thomson:aka Lord Kelvin coins term thermodynamics
c1847 Hungary Ignaz Semmelweiss promotes hand washing to eliminate puerperal fever
1847 Europe Helmholtz/Joule develop independently concepts of Conservation of Energy
1842 Germany J. R. Mayer states Law of Conservation of Energy/heatâmechanical energy
1837 France Brothers Bravais define "divergence angle=137.5 degrees=Golden angle"
1836 Germany Anatomist von Waldeyer-Hartz coins chromosome/Nerve cells separate(d)
1835 France Coriolis describes Coriolis Effect:deflection of moving body/Earth's rotation
1834 France Clapeyron develops Second Law of Thermodynamics
1833 England

Faraday/Whewell/coin terms:electrode;anode;ion;catode; anion;cation;electrolyte;electrolysis

1829 GFrance Coriolis/On the calculation of mechanical action/coins term kinetic energy
1824 France

Nicholas L.S. Carnot-Reflections on the Motive Power of fire-defines work as heat = work

1807 England Thomas Young introduces concept and word energy
1804 England John Leslie's An experimental inquiry into the nature and propagation of heat
1791 France The Metric System proposed/ International Bureau of Weights and Measures
1776 Europe 1st of Watt's steam engines installed/Blast furnaces steam driven, too
1741-68 Kamchatka coast Steller's Sea cow described/ hunted to extinction
1705 London Posthumous publication of Hooke's Lectures and discourses on earthquakes
1684-87 London

Halley prods Newton to finish Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica

1679-80 London Hooke/Newton formulate inverse square law/elliptical orbits
1665 England Robert Hooke: Micrographia, Martyn& Ja.Allestry, Printers to the Royal Society
1610 Italy Galileo: Sidereus nuncio, astronomy thesis
1609 Nova Scotia first attempts to harness tides at Bay of Fundy to power small mills
1608 Nederlands Hans Lippershey invents telescope
1598 Spain Phillip III offers first of many prizes for calculating longitude
1557 Europe

Robert Recorde's The Whetstone of Witte - introduces the = + and - signs into English

1543 Europa

Copernicus-De revoltioibus orbium celestium/ Vesalius-De humani corporis fabrica

1519 Portugal Ferdinand Magellan starts circumglobal voyage/dies 1521:Philippines
1513 Germany Martin Waldseemuller prepares a 200 map Atlas
1507-1800 Mauritius, La Reunion, Rodriguez Islands Dodo were first described/ then hunted to extinction by Portuguese and Dutch sailors
1507 Germany Martin Waldseemuller publishes 1000 maps with "America"
1492 Europe Martin Behaim:first Globe map/ready for new discoveries
c1405 Nederlands Dutch fishers 1st to use drift nets
1310 Europe first mechanical clocks/escapement: China uses water power
c1285 Speyer, Germany first Western reference to spinning wheel/guild statutes
c1200 Italy Leonardo Fibonacci describes series N=sum of two preceding numbers
C1185 China Oldest depiction of fishing reel
c1185 Europe first evidence in carvings for use of ship's rudder
1175 Italy Translates Algemest into Latin, along with numerous Arabic manuscripts
827 Egypt Ptolemy's Algemest Arabic translation
635 China Pi = 3.1415927 given in decimal form Sui dynasty official history
c672 Jarrow, Durham Venerable Bede Correctly describes:Shape of Earth, Tides, Calender
641 Alexandria Museum Arabs destroy remains of Alexandria's Artifacts/Books
c600 Europe first Windmills described
529 Athens Lyceum/Academy shut/Justinian
389 Alexandria Library destroyed in riot
60-69 AD Italy Hero builds Steam toy
50-59 AD Italy Pliny Elder: Naturalis Historia/Seneca: Quaestiones naturales
79 AD Pompei/Vesuvius fumes asphyxiate Pliny/Elder: Pliny/Younger describes eruption
10-109 AD Alexandria, output Hero: Heat expands air/ Simple machines
Menelaus:"Spherics" trigonometry
332-321 BC Alexandria founded Pytheas sails to No. Atlantic, Baltic, theorizes moon forces tides
336 BC Athens et al.

Alexander succeeds Phillip II of Macedon, begining spread of Greek culture/Egypt-India

343BC Athens

Aristotle becomes tutor of Alexander (preconditions-Greatness)

ca 520BC Miletus

Anaximander makes 1st attempt to model Earth - in On Nature - introduces evolution

600BC Miletus(Turkey)

Thales of Miletus studies in Egypt/deduces geometry/teaches Anaximander-1st science book?

2980 Egypt

Imhotep/physician/architect/counselor to King Zoser/1st step pyramid/1st medical text

3000BC Egypt Hieroglyphs/letters/numbers

21st Century, 20th Century, Other Chronologies; or Home:

Exported from 300BC-1897.wkz on 24/03/97 at 10:25:58 AM